Categories
Communication

Identify and describe one real-life situation to which you had or have a strong emotional response.

Identify and describe one real-life situation to which you had or have a strong emotional response.
Write a few sentences that explains what you felt or feel in this situation. Think specifically about the physiological responses you experienced.
Identify and describe other situations where you have experienced similar physiological responses. Look for commonalities in the situations, including similar issues of security/insecurity, power imbalances, or context.
What “emotion work” were you required to do? Please describe and dispute any irrational fallacies you might have experienced in your self-talk.

Categories
Communication

Describe what is done well and what needs to improve.

Using this week’s course material, explain in detail the intercultural leadership messaging where you work. Describe what is done well and what needs to improve.
Interview three colleagues and ask specifically what leaders do well and what they need to improve in terms of conveying culturally sensitive messages within an organization or at a team level. Ensure the people you select can provide different perspectives and are culturally different. Share what you learned from the Rack 4 information with the three colleagues.
In your video reflection, include the following information:
– The feedback you have received from three colleagues.
– The explanation you offered your colleagues about the culture described in the Rack 4 readings and video.
– Details of the strategy you used for selecting whom you interviewed.
– Any surprises you discovered from your own perceptions of your leaders’ organizational messaging and that of the colleagues you interviewed.
– Any changes you will make regarding your own intercultural sensitivity when communicating to your organizational stakeholders.
– What you have learned from previous modules and two external sources that substantiate what you narrated.
This week’s materials:
The attached presentations are supporting materials from Communication Skills for Business Professionals (2nd ed.). Lawson, C., Gill, R., Feekery, A., Witsel, M., Lewis, M., & Cenere, P. (2019).
Presentation: Chapter 6: Working Collaboratively (PPTX)
The textbook for the course is Messages: The Communication Skills Book (4th ed.) McKay, Davis, and Fanning (2018).
Videos:

Categories
Communication

Discuss the key aspects of intercultural management and analyze the dimensions o

Discuss the key aspects of intercultural management and analyze the dimensions of the cultural context that affect organizations across cultures.

Categories
Communication

What is the name of the communication theory that you think applies to your workplace communication problem and what is its goal (to predict, explain, change, or understand a phenomenon)?

Myumgc.edu then students class is communication theory
Username: for assigned writer
For this exercise, you will tell your classmates what you learned about the communication theory you researched and why you think it’s the right one for your final project. You should be able to use the material that you develop here in your final project. Before you tackle this exercise, please make sure you have read the Week 3 course materials.

(*Remember, if you are not employed or cannot discuss your workplace, you should be using a communication problem from another organizational setting in which you are involved for your final project, such as school, church, or a community group.)

Objective: This activity is designed to help you synthesize and begin applying what you are learning to your final project. You should be able to use material from your response to help you develop the research question for your final project.

Background: Please begin this exercise by reading the following information carefully.

Activity:

Answer the following questions.

What is the workplace* communication problem that you’re analyzing in your final project? Briefly describe it.
What is the name of the communication theory that you think applies to your workplace communication problem and what is its goal (to predict, explain, change, or understand a phenomenon)?
To which of the seven communication traditions does this theory’s field of study belong? Explain the tradition and why this theory belongs in that category.
Which of the communication contexts does the theory address? Explain the context and why this theory belongs in that category.
Does the theory seek to answer questions of ontology, epistemology, or axiology about the nature of reality? Define the term as part of your answer.
In your own words, summarize your theory. Make sure to include an explanation of its assumptions (primary axioms).
What kinds of communication problems can this theory be used to investigate? Explain and provide examples that will show us why this theory is relevant to your workplace communication problem.
Make sure to connect your ideas to course content, using American Psychological Association-style references. If you are unfamiliar with that reference style, you can find examples at the following link: APA 7th Edition Citation Examples: General Rules

Categories
Communication

What role does a person’s environment have on creativity? Give examples.

Instructions
Work on the questions below and save answers to a Word/text document (save to your PC).
Answer in a specific manner by making specific connections between this week’s assigned readings/ videos and your reflection. Please add in-text citations and/or reference(s) when necessary. THE NECESSARY READINGS WILL BE PROVIDED IN THE ATTACHMENTS AND BELOW IN THE FORM OF LINKS. PLEASE ONLY USE THOSE SOURCES.
1. BBC Documentary – How Art Made The World 2 of 5 – The Day Pictures Were

2.https://brookspsychology.files.wordpress.com/2015/11/creativity-mihaly-csikszentmihalyi.pdf#page1506
3.Dr Nigel Spivey cave art 1

4. Do schools kill creativity?https://www.ted.com/talks/sir_ken_robinson_do_schools_kill_creativity?language=en
Reading Questions
1. Why does Ken Robinson believe Art is less valued in our education system than subjects like Math and Science? Do you agree? Why/Why not?
2. Ken Robinson and Csiksentmihalyi talk about (in different ways) the role of the body and movement in facilitating creativity:
a) What do they specifically say?
b) Does bodily movement affect creativity in your experience?
3. Csikszentmihalyi describes some forms of entertainment as keeping us from creativity (bottom of p 348).
a) What is his argument? Do you agree?
b) Can forms of entertainment also encourage creativity?
c) What role does a person’s environment have on creativity? Give examples.

Categories
Communication

Define which social media outlets or platforms will meet the strategic PR goals of your organization, project or campaign.

Examine the websites of two different organizations that represent and advocate for farmers: http://gulfcitrus.org/ and http://www.californiaavocado.com
Analyze and grade each website on:
The design and layout of the home page
Site navigation and ease of access to information of interest to you
Readability of text items
The prominence of links to their social media platforms
Accessibility to the organization’s contact information, including email feature
Your paper should be three pages long and conform to APA 7 guidelines. Include at least three scholarly references in addition.
Book information:
An organization’s website can help publicists create controlled messages for a mass audience, without the filter of journalists. Organizations can use their websites to:
market products and services
post news releases, media kit information, and position papers
post photos and biographies of key executives
post photos of their offices, stories, and various location
However, these websites must be written and designed effectively to attract visitors and keep them coming back.
Website Design
Define your objectives for the site.
Design your website with the audience in mind.
Limit each page to a single concept.
Make sure each page provides the context readers need. (Any page may be the first page they see on your site.)
Update your site frequently.
Make the site interactive.
Make it easy for customers to give you feedback.
Website writing:Write the way you speak.
Use bullet points.
If you’re using existing material, redesign and rewrite it for the web; don’t just place current material on the site.
Limit the use of italics and boldface.
Make sure your hyperlinks are relevant.
Don’t overuse hyperlinks in narrative text. (Keep readers focused.)
SOCIAL MEDIA FOR STRATEGIC PR
DOI: 10.4324/9781003248330-9
Learning Goals for This Chapter
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
Create a social media strategy for your organization.
Define which social media outlets or platforms will meet the strategic PR goals of your organization, project or campaign.
Analyze target audiences to determine which social media platforms, if any, are most appropriate for reaching them.
Master social media writing.
Understand how to use social media for media relations and crisis communications.
Social media has become an integral part of our lives. The Associated Press Stylebook, 2020–22 edition, defines “social media” as an “umbrella term for online services that people use to share posts, photos and videos with small or large groups of people.”
People use it to get their news, to learn about new products, to educate themselves about candidates for public office and to announce everything from the adoption of a new pet to a death in the family.
It has also become an essential tactic in strategic public relations.
For nonprofit organizations, elected officials and NGOs, as well as businesses large and small, social media has become a central part of how they communicate both internally and externally to key audiences.
It is safe to say that if your business or organization does not have a website and an active social media presence, it will seem as if it does not exist. In fact, it would be virtually impossible to name an organization or important individual that does not have some sort of social media presence.
For the PR writer, it is important to not confuse familiarity with social media as expertise. It is one thing to post vacation pictures on Facebook and another to understand how to use social media to advance business and organizational objectives. Like all communications tactics, social media should be executed in a planned, strategic manner.
The bedrock of an organization’s social media presence is its website – the public face of the organization. It must reflect the image, identity and overall “personality” of the organization. Creating and maintaining an effective website is a central tactic for virtually all organizations. To be effective, websites must evolve in tandem with digital technology and must be updated with fresh, engaging content. Website design and maintenance is not the focus of this book; however, creating content and the strategic use of social media will be discussed in detail.
This chapter focuses on strategically harnessing the tremendous power of social media and how to integrate it into the overall communications strategy of the organization as well as individual campaigns and initiatives. Social media is constantly changing. New platforms are launched routinely. And some just gather digital dust. Existing platforms introduce new features and retire others. It is important to monitor these changes. An important strategic role for the PR professional is evaluating if a specific social media platform is right for your client or company, as well as how you plan to use it.
Smart businesses are constantly reevaluating their social media presences and what social media platforms are best for them. For example, LinkedIn may be a great choice for a law firm but TikTok may not make sense. Unless, of course, the law firm finds an innovative use for the site that helps it stand out from its competition. It all comes down to strategy.
Social Media and the PESO Model
In terms of the PESO model, social media can be used in all four types of communications. If your organization pays for advertisements on social media, then it is certainly paid media. In terms of earned media, social media can be used to identify new media outlets, distribute news releases, and pitch individual reporters and build relationships with them. Social media is also an important way of sharing content. Lastly, an organization’s or individual’s social media account is owned by it because the organization has control of what is posted and when. This makes it owned media.
Social Media Use in 2021
According to the 2021 Pew Research Center Survey on Social Media Use, seven in ten Americans say they use social media, with YouTube and Facebook continuing to be the most popular sites. In fact, 81% of survey respondents use YouTube and 69% are on Facebook. The full report can be accessed at www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/04/07/social-media-use-in-2021/.
The survey also revealed that the popularity of YouTube, which is owned by Google, is likely to grow. On the other hand, Facebook’s growth has leveled off.
When it comes to the other platforms in the survey, 40% of adults say they use Instagram and about three in ten report using Pinterest or LinkedIn. One-quarter say they use Snapchat, with Twitter and WhatsApp close in popularity.
TikTok, an app for sharing short videos, is used by 21% of Americans, while 13% say they use the neighborhood-focused platform Nextdoor. In terms of young adults, Instagram, Snapchat and TikTok have an especially strong following. In fact, a majority of 18- to 29-year-olds say they use Instagram (71%) or Snapchat (65%), and half use TikTok. It is worth noting that Reddit was the only platform polled (other than YouTube) that experienced statistically significant growth, increasing from 11% in 2019 to 18% today.
Demographics of Different Social Networks
When deciding which social media platforms to use, it is important to have a detailed understanding of not only the number of participants, but who is using the site. That way, you can select the site that will reach your target audience. The Pew Research Center’s survey reveals the following information:
Instagram
About half of Hispanic (52%) and Black Americans (49%) say they use the platform, compared with smaller shares of white Americans (35%).
WhatsApp
Hispanic Americans (46%) are far more likely to say they use WhatsApp than Black (23%) or white Americans (16%).
LinkedIn
Those with higher levels of education are more likely than those with lower levels of educational attainment to report being LinkedIn users.
Half of adults who have a bachelor’s or advanced degree (51%) say they use LinkedIn, compared with smaller shares of those with some college experience (28%) and those with a high school diploma or less (10%).
Pinterest
Women continue to be far more likely than men to say they use Pinterest when compared with male counterparts, by a difference of 30 points (46% versus 16%).
Nextdoor
Adults living in urban (17%) or suburban (14%) areas are more likely to say they use Nextdoor. Only 2% of rural Americans report using the site.
Relationship Between PR and Social Media Engagement
When social media was in its infancy, it was generally viewed as its own form of communications. It was separate and apart from the advertising, marketing and public relations functions. Today, these functions are integrated to maximize their potential. That is one reason the PESO model is so important.
PR and social media work best when they are in sync with each other. PR and social media are based on communication, but social media, with its real-time messaging, amplifies your message, allowing PR tactics to be stronger and more impactful. Social media has also made PR more “friendly” to all stakeholders, resulting in a new area of marketing called “relationship marketing.” This helps companies to be warmer, more inviting and more approachable.
Creating a Social Media Strategy
When using social media as part of your communications plan, it is crucial that you develop a social media strategy. This is a document that outlines:
Your social media goals
The tactics you will use to achieve them
Hootesuite.com, a social media service provider, offers tips to create a social media strategy. Here is a summary of their suggestions:
Choose social media goals that align to your business objectives.
Use the SMART approach to choosing goals. “SMART” stands for specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound.
You may want to track different goals for different platforms, or even different uses. For example, if you use LinkedIn to drive traffic to your website, measure click-throughs. A click-through is the action or facility of following a hypertext link to a particular website.
Learn everything you can about your audience. Knowing who your audience is and what they want to see on social media is key. That way, you can create content that they will like, comment on and share.
Know your competition. Your competitors are using social media, and you can learn from what they’re doing. Conduct a competitive analysis. This allows you to understand what they’re doing well (and not so well). It may also help spot opportunities. If one of your competitors is dominant on Facebook, for example, but has put little effort into Twitter or Instagram, this may provide an idea for an interesting opportunity for your client or company.
Do a social media audit. Take stock of your efforts so far. Determine what is meeting your goals and what is not. And plan to improve what you are currently doing.
Set up accounts and improve profiles.
After your audit, you may decide to include new social media sites or retire old ones. As you decide which social networks to use, you will also need to define your strategy for each platform. Remember to use consistent branding (logos, images, etc.).
Find inspiration.
While it’s important that your brand be unique, you can draw inspiration from other businesses that are great on social media. Case studies can offer valuable insights that you can apply to your own social media plan. You could also check out the winners of the Facebook Awards (www.facebook.com/business/news/facebook-awards-winners-announcement) or the Shorty Awards (https://shortyawards.com/).
Create a social media content calendar.
Sharing great content is essential. You need to schedule when you’ll share content. Your social media content calendar will contain dates and times when you will publish different types of content on each site. The social media service provider Meltwater offers this free template to build a social media calendar: www.meltwater.com/en/resources/content-calendar-template.
Evaluate and adjust your strategy.
As you implement your plan and track results, you may find that some strategies don’t work as well as you’d anticipated, while others are working even better than expected.
A template to create a social media strategy can be downloaded from Hootsuite. com at https://blog.hootsuite.com/how-to-create-a-social-media-marketing-. Another template is available from Ring Central, a cloud communications company, at www.ringcentral.com/us/en/blog/social-media-campaign-planning/.
Create Hashtags
Using the right hashtags can show that you’re in tune with current trends, allowing you to take part in the conversations that matter to your organization or client. Hashtags also work well for monitoring your brand. They’re a great way to increase the visibility of your content beyond your own followers. Many brands latch onto trending topics to contribute to the conversation or sell their products. You can also create your own hashtags to draw attention to your brand or events you are holding.
Only use hashtags that are relevant to your content. For example, if you tweet about starting a business, you might use the hashtag “#entrepreneurship.” You should also limit how many hashtags you use. The more you use, the less likely people are to interact with your content because they’ll find your posts spam-like. Every social media site uses hashtags slightly differently, so it’s important to know what the conventions are on each platform.
How to Use the Top Social Media Sites
Social media is constantly changing. As a communications professional, it is your job to stay on top of these changes. Your clients and senior management will rely on your judgment regarding using a new platform or not. For instance, the CEO of your organization may become interested in a social media platform because his or her grandchildren are obsessed with it. Or your client may have just returned from a social media conference and is now questioning the social media strategy that you and your team just spent the last month working on. Look at these suggestions as opportunities to evaluate what you are doing in social media. There may be the germ of a good idea. You just don’t want to start working with a new social media site simply because it is trendy or abandon what you are currently doing because you have been on the site for a while. It is all about working with the social media platforms that will advance your goals, will reach your target audience and can be maintained within allotted resources.
Over time, the list of the top social media sites will likely change, and, as it does, you will need to reevaluate your social media strategy. Following are the top social media outlets in 2021 with descriiptions of what they are and how to use them.
Social Media and Crisis Communications
Social media can be a useful tool during a crisis because it allows you to respond quickly in real time. For instance, if a business needs to be evacuated because of a wildfire, sending messages out on social media regarding how to reach the media team, as well as providing real-time updates on people who may be at the business is very important. For other types of crises, using social media to tell your story and get out your key messages can help control the narrative of your company or client. If you don’t tell your story, someone else will and you may not like their version.
But sometimes, a crisis itself starts in social media. It could be as simple as a reporter who posts a message looking for negative stories. For instance, a journalist posts that they are hearing that flood claims are not being paid after a storm and want to know if this is happening to others. Or they want to know if people are experiencing rude salespeople at a particular store or chain. The journalist is looking for victims who can make for compelling news. If you ignore such situations, they can turn into a crisis of negative reporting.
You may want to reach out to a journalist directly. If you can’t stop such postings, you will need to develop a plan. If the accusations are true, the problem needs to be fixed. You can follow up with positive messages about how your client or organization has positively responded. If the accusations are false, you need to quickly set the record straight, and social media is an effective tool for doing this.
There are also other types of crises that can occur in social media. The social media monitoring company Mediatoolkit states that there are four types of social media crises:
Multichannel crisis. This is extremely dangerous because it has the potential to go viral and generate a great deal of negative publicity very quickly.
Emerging crisis. If it is not anticipated and dealt with as soon as possible, it can quickly escalate into a bigger scandal.
Industry crisis. This occurs when a vendor or competitor is experiencing a social media crisis – for example, when many fashion brands are suddenly all attacked for nontransparent actions.
Fake news. In the age of social media, a post can go viral in just one click. The ability to detect rumors about your brand quickly is essential.
All of these crises demand immediate responses. For instance, if a customer is unhappy, your social media team needs to reach out directly to the customer and help them offline. This needs to be done immediately. Generally, if this is handled properly, there will be no social media crisis. If there is no response – or worse, there is a computer-generated response that is not helpful – this could snowball into a much larger crisis. For complicated social media crises, your organization or client’s crisis communications department will need to step in and handle the strategic response. You as the PR writer may be tasked with developing content for various parts of the crisis response.
Mediatoolkit, on its website, offers this well-known case study of a social media crisis that could have been avoided. Here is a link to Mediatoolkit with the full case study: Mediatoolkitwww.mediatoolkit.com/blog/social-media-crisis-examples.
This is an example of how to turn a PR social media crisis into a total disaster. One day in 2017, United Airlines Flight 3411 was overbooked. The airline decided to draw four random passengers who would not be able to fly and asked them to vacate their seats to make room for four airline employees. When the crew requested a pulmonologist to surrender his seat, he refused, saying that he needed to see a patient the following day (which was understandable, as he had paid for that seat).
After that, security appeared on the plane and forcibly dragged the man off the plane with a bleeding face. The whole situation was recorded by fellow passengers on the flight and immediately posted online.
A video of the incident went viral on social media, stoking anger over the violent action. One such video was shared 87,000 times and viewed 6.8 million times in less than a day.
Many politicians expressed concern and called for an official investigation. President Donald Trump criticized United Airlines, saying the airline’s treatment of the passenger was “horrible.”
Where this brand went wrong:
The following day, the then-CEO of United Airlines, Oscar Munoz, issued a statement that appeared to justify the removal of the passenger. And it gets worse.
After that, Munoz sent an email to United Airlines staff that was obtained by the media. Munoz said the passenger was “disruptive and belligerent” and that employees “followed established procedures.”
The email contained utterly different information from the official statement. This caused more online fury. United shares plummeted in value dramatically.
How this problem could have been prevented:
A coherent, sincere message at first. The airline should have responded to each and every comment with complete respect. There was no reason for them to blame a passenger whose safety they should have been prioritizing. The whole situation should have been explained.
Retaining Outside Assistance
While the writing of social media posts is generally best handled by the organization or its retained PR consultant, there may be times when a social media specialist may provide strategic insight and assistance. For instance, you may want to hire someone to help draft or update your social media strategy, or you may want to work with a social media monitoring and measurement organization to measure your effectiveness. This can provide information data points to update or improve what you are doing as well as provide important metrics to demonstrate that you are reaching organizational objectives.
Summary
In summary, social media is an important strategic tool for the strategic public relations writer. It is an effective tool for communicating directly to your key audiences, as well as working with journalists and influencers. That is why strategic organizations create a social media strategy and update it as social media itself changes, as well as to reflect changes in goals and objectives.
An effective social media strategy can also boost your earned media efforts. It can support your media relations efforts and relationships with journalists and news organizations. Used correctly, social media can be a powerful tool before, during and after a crisis. However, if social media is not monitored and handled correctly, it can also be the source of a crisis it. In short, social media is a powerful tool.

Categories
Communication

Identify rules, or norms, you and others tend to follow for emailing, texting, tweeting, and using emoji and stickers.

Use of the Internet has acquired its own rules and conventions for interaction known as netiquette.
Identify rules, or norms, you and others tend to follow for emailing, texting, tweeting, and using emoji and stickers.
Which of these rules are regulative?
Which of these rules are constitutive?

Categories
Communication

How has COVID changed the World?

Identify 1 peer-reviewed journal article from the last 5 years from the Virginia University of Lynchburg Library. Peer-reviewed articles are articles that include an introduction, literature review, methods, results, and conclusion in the article. Write a single-article review to address the following:
What is the significance of the topic?
Are the purpose and scope clear?
Is it clear that the article is addressing a gap in the literature?
Is the article analytical (theoretical, empirical, conceptual, philosophical)?
Are the conclusions valid?
Your paper must be concise, well written, and should meet the following:..
Length: 2-3 pages (not counting cover and references pages).
Assigment Two
my topic) How has COVID change the World? Decide about a topic of interest to you and develop a research question related to it. To develop the question, you must identify a gap in the research literature that needs to be further examined. Take the following steps:
Identify five to seven academic peer-reviewed journal articles from the last five years in your area of interest. Skim them by focusing on the abstract and conclusion.
According to the authors of at least one of the articles you identified, what does future research need to examine? Or based on their findings, what limitations do the authors indicate need to be addressed?
This information would be in the conclusion of academic articles. Considering this information, develop a research question that you would like to explore, based on a gap or limitation that previous authors have identified as needed for further exploration. For this discussion, please cite the article from which your research question was developed and summarize its findings regarding research needs or limitations.
Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced. Post your initial response by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week. and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to two of your peers’ posts as well by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week.
Assignemnt 3
There are numerous theoretical paradigms that help explain human behavior. Discuss how theoretical frameworks inform scholarly research and discuss a theoretical framework that you feel is relevant to the topic that you introduced in Week 2. There are two approaches to sampling: probability & non-probability. What approach would you suggest for the topic you picked in Week 2? Why is that?
Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced. Post your initial response by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to two of your peers’ posts as well by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week.
Assigment 4
Why it is vital to observe and abide by ethical standards when we conduct research? Based on, your proposed topic from Week 2’s discussion; what ethical issues might appear from the study? How would you direct (address) the subjects?
Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced. Post your initial response by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week. and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to two of your peers’ posts as well by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week.
Assignment 5
Why it is vital to observe and abide by ethical standards when we conduct research? Based on, your proposed topic from Week 2’s discussion; what ethical issues might appear from the study? How would you direct (address) the subjects?
Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced. Post your initial response by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week. and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to two of your peers’ posts as well by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week.
Assignment 6
Based on the topic you chose for Week 2, discuss the instruments and materials you would use to collect data. How would you define your variables? Would you need to develop your own instrument or use a pre-established instrument? How would you determine the validity and reliability of the instrument? What are the benefits and drawbacks of your instrument?
Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced. Post your initial response by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week. and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to two of your peers’ posts as well by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week.
Assignment 7
Based on your discussion topic for Week 2, what research design or approach would you use to collect data? Would you use a quantitative approach, qualitative approach, or mixed-method? What is your justification for using this design?
Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced. Post your initial response by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week. and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to two of your peers’ posts as well by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week.
Assignment 8
Based on your topic from the Week 2 discussion, propose a sampling strategy and identify the setting/population you would use or draw a sample for your study.
Describe the population you would use (from which the sample would be drawn).
Describe the sampling method you would use and why it’s most appropriate.
Describe the sample size and why it’s appropriate.
Describe the eligibility requirements and characteristics for your proposed sample.
Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced. Post your initial response by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week. and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to two of your peers’ posts as well by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week. Assigmnet 8
Describe the data collection procedures by studying the topic you identified in Week 2. Be as detailed as possible, be sure your readers could replicate your procedures.
Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced. Post your initial response by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to two of your peers’ posts as well by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT of this week.
Unit Assignment – Digital Dropbox
Not completed: Unit Assignment – Digital Dropbox. Select to mark as complete.
Write a research proposal based on the discussed project that you have augmented throughout this course in the Discussion Board.
Identify the problem and question you propose to investigate.
Describe the significance of your study.
Discuss the kind of information/data needed to answer your research question and steps you must take to collect the information.
Identify the main (key) points established in the literature regarding your problem. Describe the different views the literature presents.
Argument about the stakeholders who may sympathize with your research results and discuss what interests and perspectives they could bring.
Based on the literature, identify the most conclusive (credible) solutions to the problem you established. Do you find the literature limiting?
Your paper must be concise, well written, and should meet the following:
Length: 6-8 pages (not counting cover and references pages).
To support your statements, cite a minimum of 5 scholarly journal sources that are not provided or linked in this course. The Virginia University of Lynchburg library database is very useful to find this type of scholarly sources.

Categories
Communication

State and describe Communication Process.

OVERVIEW
This course has focused on the Communication Process – What makes it work, what causes it to break down and how
we can fix it. You have successfully identified concepts & theories that you have learned in the film Freedom Writers.
Therefore, you have practice in how to identify what you have learned in a particular context. So, let’s do some more
of that… with a little twist.
The movie Freedom Writers was based on the book The Freedom Writers Diary, which was authored by the students in
Mrs. Gruwell’s class (as portrayed in the movie). This launched a movement that remains incredibly relevant and
impactful today – a movement of which NCC (and I!) wanted to be a part and to which I desired to expose my
students.
In Dear Freedom Writer, the next generation of Freedom Writers shares its struggles with abuse, racism,
discrimination, poverty, mental health, imposed borders, LGBTQIA+ identity, and police violence. Each story is
answered with a letter of advice from an original Freedom Writer. With empathy and honesty, they address these
young people not with the platitudes of a politician or a celebrity, but with the pragmatic advice of people who have
dealt with these same issues and come out on the other side. And guess what? A NCC Alum is a published author
with the pages of Dear Freedom Writer!
THAT’S GREAT – BUT, WHAT DO I HAVE TO DO TO GET THAT 40% OF MY GRADE?
Take some time to thumb through the book and see which topics, stories and themes resonate with you. Start by
looking at the table of contents and noting if anything jumps out at you. If it does, turn to the letters and read them.
As the descriiption notes, the book is comprised of a set of letters to an original Freedom Writer and back to this new
generation of Freedom Writers. You will also have a discussion post that will lead you to review these letters, as well.
ASSIGNMENT/CONTENT OF PAPER
• Pick two (2) sets of letters from the book (one set includes the letter to the original Freedom Writer and one
back to the New Freedom Writer)
• Accurately identify 1-2 concepts/theories learned in the lectures (Be sure to cite the lectures!) that you recognize
in the letters.
• Demonstrate a thorough understanding of the concepts/theories identified, providing thoughtful responses to
this research to back up all claims in a thorough manner.
▪ In other words – Explain and define the concepts/theories you have identified using your research (citations!).
• Demonstrate a thorough understanding of the concepts/theories identified by using accurate examples of how
these concepts/theories are displayed in the letter(s). Explanations need to show a great amount of critical
thought.
▪ In other words – Support your claim that the story is displaying the concepts/theories you have identified.
▪ . Utilize ALL OF THE FOLLOWING: Textbook, Lectures AND 2 or more sources from the NCC Library Databases.
▪ Properly CITE ALL OF THESE SOURCES USING MLA Format to accurately back-up ALL claims. Include properly
structured parenthetical citations and a works cited/bibliography page.
FINAL PAPER
(Worth 40% of your Grade)
Read Select Stories from Dear Freedom Writer and Connect to what
you have learned in this class!
MORE IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS
✓ ONLY SOURCES FROM THE NCC LIBRARY DATABASES. NO INTERNET SOURCES PLEASE
✓ Check and double-check! Use the writing center, the Library’s LibGuide on “Basic Research Strategies,” review
your information literacy assignment and your MLA Guide to review proper citation.
http://www.ncc.edu/programsandcourses/academic_departments/english/writingcenter/
http://ncc.libguides.com/br
✓ 3 ½ – 4 1/2 pages in length (not counting the bibliography), using 11-12 pt font. Please – No more or no less than
this.
✓ Double-spaced
✓ Submitted using the Final Paper Submission link on Blackboard in .PDF, .DOC, or .DOCX format (NO .pages files).
How should I approach this paper?
Browse through the lectures/lessons from the course to refresh your memory. While you’re reading the letters, have a
notebook in front of you. As you are reading, thoughts will pop up that cause you to think about lessons. Jjot down a
bit about the letter and what lesson, concept, or theory came to mind when you read it. When you’re done
reading/recalling your thoughts/observations, go back to your lectures and think more critically about these
connections and make your notes more complete.
Other important items to keep in mind!
• Please be sure to give a brief summary of the letter(s) to which you are referring (Please don’t write more than
a paragraph)
• Although this paper uses real-life examples from the book, at all times you should use scholarly writing and
language throughout the paper. Be sure to use the formal names of concepts/theories used in the
lecture/textbook.
(i.e.: DO NOT say: “They were poor listeners in that reading. So, I feel that they should have listened better.”
Another no-no would be, “He was so mean to her. So, I think that she should have left”.)
o A good example would be (In this example, I’m using pretend names/a pretend letter. And, this is just a partial
explanation of a theory): In the letter, “Listening,” John is not displaying effective listening. According to InterAct’s chapter, Listening Effectively, listening is, “the process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and
responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages” (Verderber and Verderber 196). From the basic definition to
the Active Listening Process outlined in this chapter, John fails on all accounts. In the letter, Janet notes that he is
watching television while Janet is speaking to him about a serious topic. Therefore, he must be displaying poor eye
contact and is truly not physically and mentally ready to attend (204). She notes that he interrupts her several
times, clearly not making the shift from speaker to listener a complete one, leaving no basis for understanding the
message being sent.

Categories
Communication

What have you learned about the role of “good research” in building a speech’s content?

The self-evaluation should be sure to answer the following questions:
1. What have you learned about the role of “good research” in building a speech’s content?
2. What have you learned about the importance of appropriately structuring a speech?
3. How have you improved in these two areas (Questions 1 & 2) over the course of the
semester?
4. What does good speech delivery look like? Why does good speech delivery matter?
5. How did your delivery improve over the course of the semester?
6. How did speaking to a specific audience influence selection of meaningful content in
constructing speeches? How did it affect language and oral presentation tactics to
effectively convey meaning and nuance to the specific audiences?
7. What are your speech goals (content, structure, and delivery) as you leave this class?
Format
The essay should be 1-2 double-spaced pages (the minimum is 1 page; the maximum is 2 pages),
12 point Times New Roman, Calibri, or Arial font, 1-inch margins. This should be written in
essay format with an introduction, body, conclusion, and transitions. In other words, you will not
write numbers of questions and then answer them. It should be a flowing, seamless essay that
integrates the above ideas. If you use excerpts from the book, be sure you cite it and include a
Reference page.
Purpose
Students will demonstrate their comprehension of course materials related to the context and
rhetorical purpose of oral presentation in the form of a written self-evaluation. In their
evaluation, students should demonstrate knowledge of how effective public speaking uses
appropriate, meaningful content to effectively convey meaning and nuance to the specific
audiences targeted by the speeches they were assigned in class. The essay should identify what
areas of strength and improvement the student feels their performance in the course have