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Why do some materials conduct electricity/current, why do some materials insulate from electricity/current, and why do some materials semi-conduct electricity/current?

https://electronics.howstuffworks.com/diode.htm
Answer the following:
Why do some materials conduct electricity/current, why do some materials insulate from electricity/current, and why do some materials semi-conduct electricity/current?
What you believe to be the most amazing use of semi-conductor technology (this could include mini, micro, and nanotechnology) in use today, or being developed for future uses. List the Internet, and other resources.

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What are first order and second order filter and what are their uses?

Research and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of passive filters. Some advantages are, it is reliable, they can handle large voltage currents and power, there is no limitation on the frequency range, they do not need the additional dc power supply for their operation, easy to design, cheaper as compared to active filter, no amplifying elements, require no power supply, high frequency. Some disadvantages are, response problems, tuning for fixed frequency, fixed reactive power compensation, large in size, there is no isolation between input and output, the circuit becomes bulky if inductors are used, there is always some loss of signal it can be in the passband, this circuit cannot provide any gain, source loading can take place, there is no clear demarcation between passband and stopband but actually, it gets mixed up, in this frequency response is not sharp since when switching from passband to stopband there is no sudden change in output.
Research and discuss types of passive filters and their use. Low-pass filters: attenuate or suppress signals with frequencies above a particular frequency called the cutoff or critical frequency. For example, a low-pass filter (LPF) with a cutoff frequency of 40 Hz can eliminate noise with a frequency of 60 Hz. High-pass filters: suppress  or attenuate signals with frequencies lower than a particular  frequency, also called the cutoff or critical frequency. For example, a  high-pass filter (HPF) with a cutoff frequency of 100 Hz can be used to  suppress the unwanted DC voltage in amplifier systems, if desired. Band-pass filters: attenuate or suppress signals with frequencies outside a band of frequencies. They are common in TV or radio tuning circuits. Band-reject, or notch filters: attenuate  or suppress signals with a range of frequencies. For instance, a notch  filter can reject signals with frequencies between 50 Hz and 150 Hz.
Why do passive filters not provide current amplification? Since passive  components consume power from the input signal, the passive filter does  not provide power gain and the output signal has a lower magnitude than  the input. It requires amplification post-filtering. Features of  Passive Filter Passive filter use only passive components such as  resistor, capacitor and inductor.
What is circuit isolation and why is not having any of a passive filter a disadvantage? Isolation  is a means of preventing current from flowing between two communicating  points. Typically, isolation is used in two general situations. You  don’t need isolation through a passive filter.
What are first order and second order filter and what are their uses? High  pass filter is a frequency selecting electronic circuit that controls  the frequency components in a signal by attenuating blocking the  low-frequency components and allowing only high-frequency components. An  active filter means that its circuit contains an active component such  as a transistor, operational amplifier Op-Amp, etc. for better  performance but mainly for amplification.
ECSTUFF4U for Electronics Engineer: Advantages and disadvantages of passive filters
Links to an external site.
Passive Filters Selection Guide: Types, Features, Applications | Engineering360 (globalspec.com)
Links to an external site.
Differences between Active and Passive Filter (electricaltechnology.org)

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What is circuit isolation and why is not having any of a passive filter a disadvantage?

Why do passive filters not provide current amplification?
Passive  filters do not provide current amplification because passive filters  are made up of passive components such as resistors, capacitors, and  inductors and have no amplifying elements (ElectronicsTutorial, n.d.).  Therefore, no signal gain and output level is always less than or never  exceeds the input.
What is circuit isolation and why is not having any of a passive filter a disadvantage?
Circuit  isolation provides a barrier using a mechanic switch to separate two  circuits to prevent dangerous voltages from passing through the  electrical circuit in the event of an electrical fault or failure in the  system (AtlasScientific, 2022). The disadvantage of not having a  passive filter is the circuit isolation will still allow any range of  frequency to pass through the circuit.
What are first order and second order filter and what are their uses?
A  first order filter can be made by connecting together a single resistor  and a single capacitor/inductor in series across an input signal (Vin),  with the output of the filter (Vout) taken from the junction of these  two components (ElectronicsTutorial, n.d.). A second order filter will  have two of either components, and the stability of the system is  proportional to the order of the filter.
References
Passive Low Pass Filter. Electronics Tutorials. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/filter/filter_2.html
Links to an external site.
What is Electrical Isolation? (2022, June 8). [web log].  Retrieved from  https://atlas-scientific.com/blog/what-is-electrical-isolation/.

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What is the shape factor and how does this differ from the bandwidth?

Bandwidth identifies the number of waveform cycles that have at least  70.7% of the expected current and is displayed on a graph with current  on the Y-axis and frequency on the X-axis. The bandwidth will be present  when the input waveform is between the upper and lower resonant  frequency of an RLC circuit. At resonance, the most current will be  allowed through the circuit and the most allowable frequency will be  seen at the center of the bandwidth graph. This frequency will also be  the resonant frequency. Selectivity identifies the circuit’s ability to  allow or reject frequencies outside of the expected current range of  70.7% of maximum and is dependent on the Q-Factor.
Discussion Prompt: Discuss the following prompts
Research and discuss RLC bandwidth and selectivity and provide the equations for each.
Research and discuss the upper and lower cut-off frequencies and how they relate to bandwidth.
How is Q factor related to bandwidth and selectivity?
What is the shape factor and how does this differ from the bandwidth?
What happens to frequency signals that are above and below the upper and lower cut-off frequencies of an RLC filter?

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What type of RAM does your computer take?

Take a few minutes to look at the computers in your home (or the computer that you use for school). Describe your computer. You might consider:
The type of computer
The peripherals
Input and output devices
How much RAM do you have?

Can you add more? How do you know?
What type of RAM does your computer take?

What processor is in your computer?

How many cores does it have?
How fast is the processor?

How much storage do you have on your hard drive?

How much free space do you have?
How much space is used?

What types of ports does your computer have? How many of each?
Ask a friend about their computer. How is it different from yours? Which computer do you consider the better computer? Why? Think about how you use your computer. Choose at least one thing to upgrade that would make your experience using your computer better. Why did you choose to upgrade that particular item? How will it help?

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Describe how you could work collaboratively on a personal or professional project.

Unit 2 Discussion Topic 1: Cloud-Based File Management Techniques (graded)
As you begin to use OneDrive to manage your files and folders please consider how you might be able to share files and/or plan collaboratively on projects using OneDrive.
Describe how you could work collaboratively on a personal or professional project.
Describe how you can share a file or folder as you collaborate with teammates.
Evaluate and prioritize any security issues related to using cloud-based file management tools.

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Electronic Engineering homework help

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Capacitor.

I am choosing topic 5, Capacitor Advantages and Disadvantages. The  two main types of capacitors to be discussed will be electrolytic and  ceramic capacitors. The electrolytic capacitor is a polarized capacitor  meaning that it has a positive and negative terminal. Therefore, proper  orientation in the circuit is necessary. Ceramic capacitors are  non-polarized meaning that they can be connected in either orientation  in the circuit. One type of electrolytic capacitor is formed by two  aluminum electrodes in an electrolyte of borax, phosphate, or  carbonate.  Between the two aluminum strips, absorbent gauze soaks up  the electrolyte to provide the required electrolysis that produces an  oxide film. Ceramic capacitors are made from earth fired under extreme  heat. Sometimes titanium dioxide or one of several types of silicates is  used for the dielectric. Silver is often used on both sides of the  dielectric to form the plates of the capacitor. Probably the main  advantage of ceramic capacitors is that they can be manufactured for  very high values of dielectric constants (k) and provide a wide range of  capacitance (1pf to 1 microfarad).
Except for electrolytics, ceramic capacitors and most other  capacitors do not wear out while being stored on the shelf. However,  electrolytics should be used fresh from the factory because of the wet  electrolyte that usually dries up over a period of time. Also, the  capacitor value changes drastically as the electrolyte dries up.  However, the ceramic capacitor value may change only 10-15% during the  first year of storage as the ceramic material relaxes. After a few years  of service, if the electrolyte dries up, electrolytics usually become  partially open and should be replaced because much of the capacitor  action is gone. Temperature and age deterioration can also cause many  capacitors to become shorted. This is even more common with  electrolytics.
Dielectric absorption is the inability of a capacitor to completely  discharge to zero. This phenomenon is commonly called “battery action”  or “capacitor memory” due to the dielectric retaining a charge after it  is supposedly discharged. Electrolytics have more of this characteristic  than most other capacitors.
Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) is also higher in electrolytics  than other types of capacitors. This resistive effect is caused by the  fact that charge and discharge action cannot be followed  instantaneously. Probably, the main advantage of electrolytic capacitor  is its cost effectiveness in providing the highest capacitance in the  smallest possible space. One major area of concern for electrolytics is  that they can be instantly destroyed or burned and cause an explosion if  connected in the wrong orientation in the circuit.
Douglas
References
Floyd, T. L., Buchla, D. M.  (20190225). Principles of Electric  Circuits, 10th Edition. [[VitalSource Bookshelf version]].  Retrieved  from vbk://9780134880068
Schultz, M.E. and Grob, B. (2016) Grob’s Basic Electronics. 12th ed. , New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

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How does the transistor charge the storage capacitor in a DRAM and what circuitry is required for each memory bit?

rompt 8: Volatile Digital Memory
A capacitor  stores a charge that drains slowly over time or is discharged by a  connection to ground. These charges can be used as a digital “on”, or  HIGH, when fully charged. Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) uses  capacitors, along with a transistor, to store HIGH and LOW bit values  using these capacitors but does loose the memory states once the  capacitors discharge. Regenerative capacitor memory, like DRAM,  periodically updates or moves data in the memory block to maintain the  charges and prevent data loss.
Discussion Prompt: Discuss the following prompts
Research and discuss Dynamic Random-Access Memory transitive-capacitive circuit diagram. DRAM stands for Dynamic  random access memory. DRAM, is a specific type of random access memory  that allows for higher densities at a lower cost. The memory modules  found in laptops and desktops use DRAM.
DRAM works much  differently than other types of memory. The fundamental storage cell  within DRAM is composed of two elements: a transistor and a capacitor.
Research and discuss the use of DRAM technology and the challenges with mass memory storage.
Dynamic random access memories  (DRAMs) are key components in all computing systems that require large  working memory. Due to the strong increase in data volume in many  embedded applications, such as machine learning, image processing,  autonomous systems, etc., DRAMs largely impact the overall system  performance and power consumption. In many of these applications, the  overall system performance is often limited by the memory bandwidth or  latency and not by the computation itself. Due to the dynamic storage  scheme of DRAMs and shrinking technology nodes, reliability is also a  major concern in current and future DRAMs.
How does the transistor charge the storage capacitor in a DRAM and what circuitry is required for each memory bit?
A voltage is applied to the transistor in the DRAM cell. The voltage is then given a data value. It is then placed on a bit-line. This, in turn, charges the storage capacitor.
DRAM will store bits of data in what’s called a storage, or memory cell, consisting of a capacitor and a transistor.  The storage cells are typically organized in a rectangular  configuration. When a charge is sent through a column, the transistor at  the column is activated.
Why is it recommended to turn off a digital device for a full minute before restarting the device again?
Shutting down your digital device can help it run more smoothly by eliminating memory leaks.  A memory leak occurs when an app requires a certain amount of memory in  order to work, but fails to free up this memory when it is no longer  needed.
What devices do you use that contain DRAM technology and what are some scaling challenges does this technology face?
I use several Dram devices iPad iPhones and other devices.Some scaling challenges are memory performance and testing.
August 01, 2019 by Stephen St. Michael https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/technical-articles/introduction-to-dram-dynamic-random-access-memory

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What are the three main components of an induction heating system?

An induction furnace uses an inductive coil to produce heat for  smelting and casting processes. This inductor needs to be stabilized  using several other components like capacitors and resistors to ensure  the circuit does not overheat and can continue to vary the current in  the inductive coil to maintain heat output.
Discussion Prompt: Discuss the following prompts
Research and discuss induction heating systems and their RLC components.
Research and discuss a coreless and a channel induction furnace.
What are the three main components of an induction heating system?
What circuit components affect a channel induction furnace heating temperature?
Why is impedance matching important for induction furnaces?

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What determines the resonance frequency and bandwidth in a tank circuit?

esearch and discuss resonance and impedance matching in a Tank Circuit.
I chose this topic because I have never known how receivers worked  beyond having material that absorbs an electromagnetic wave and most  likely has a capacitor that filters out the unwanted “noise”. A tank  circuit used in receivers uses both and capacitor and an inductor to  filter out frequencies too high or too low. like a legal balance scale  that only turns on the radio if the scale is balanced. So hypothetically  (there are probably other factors like “Q factor” to smooth it out)  there will be one frequency range where it can pass through both the  capacitor and inductor.
Research and discuss Bandwidth and Q Factor of an LC parallel resonant circuit.
So bandwidth is the reference to a range of frequencies. Similar to  how many lanes a road has. I am not sure I understand this Q factor  completely, but I think that is the measurement of how much intensity  the wave can pass through the capacitor and inductor. The more intense  the wave, the more there is to sample, which means more data/quality.  The intensity of the wave can be manipulated by using  resistance/resistors. The trade-off I think would be that your bandwidth  would widen as well. Then I think a circular effect could happen where  we require more precise transponders as well to give more precise  frequencies, so we can get more out of our frequencies, repeat,  repeat.
Why should inductive reactance and capacitive reactance match in a tank circuit?
If they didn’t match by having a “matching window”, no signal would come through.
What determines the resonance frequency and bandwidth in a tank circuit?
I think the value of reactance determines the resonance frequency and the resistance determines the bandwidth.
How does Q Factor in a tank circuit change at high and low resonance frequencies
The Q factor widens with high resonance and narrows with low resonance.
Q factor and bandwidth of a resonant circuit: Resonance: Electronics textbook.  All About Circuits. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2023, from  https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/alternating-current/chpt-6/q-and-bandwidth-resonant-circuit/
Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance: Resonance: Electronics textbook.  All About Circuits. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2023, from  https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/alternating-current/chpt-6/parallel-tank-circuit-resonance/
Winter/Fall 2010. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2023, from https://tiij.org/issues/issues/winter2010/fall_winter_2010.htm