Physics Experiment Report Format

Name: Do not expect credit if not included.

Title: The experiment name. Do not include the Module number. Again, do not expect credit if not included.

Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a statement the experiment is designed to test or disprove. Note: experiments are designed to test or disprove, not prove, hypotheses as there are always additional tests that could be performed. Hypotheses should make specific, testable predictions and are often in IF-THEN form, e.g., “if x is changed, then y will occur.” A hypothesis answers the question, “What is the point of the experiment”?

NOT a hypothesis: “to prove Newton’s 2nd law” or “to see what happens if I…”

IS a hypothesis: “if an object moves with constant velocity, then its distance will increase linearly with time.

Overview

The Overview is a paragraph describing the approach or strategy used to test the hypothesis. It should include what was tested and how it was tested.

Procedures

See Experiment Instructions (use this phrase; do not include the actual procedures from the experiment).

Results

State the most important numerical, graphical or qualitative results obtained from performing the experiment. If there is a data table, include it here.

Uncertainty & Error

Discuss sources of uncertainty (due to limited measurement precision, e.g., length measured to the nearest millimeter) and error. Sources of error include modeling errors (differences between the physical system your predictions are based on, and the real system) and experimental errors, both systematic (errors that always shift results in one direction) and random (equally likely to cause overestimates and underestimates). For computer simulations, discuss real-world sources of uncertainty or error that were not simulated.

Conclusion/Summary

Discuss how the experimental results support rejecting or accepting (again, not proving) the hypothesis. Discuss the relevance of uncertainties/errors to these conclusions. Propose experiment improvements and/or future directions for experimentation.

Application

Discuss at least one real-world application of the physics concept(s) tested in the experiment.

Experiment Report Example (DOCX)Download Experiment Report Example (DOCX)

The single most important requirement for an experiment report is clarity. It should be written in such a way that someone who has been unable to conduct the experiment would be able to clearly understand what was done, the results, and why it mattered.

All experiment reports should be:

concise, clear, and contain the necessary details for a well-developed explanation.

well organized so the reader is able to quickly find the information needed or of interest.

relevant and rational so the reader is able to validate the summary or conclusion.

address all rubric assessment areas (see grading rubric)

# Category: Physics

Choose a discussion topic that uses physics topics covered in this module. Consider one of the following as good topic “starters” for discussion: (i) What were your “Aha!” moments as you worked through the material? (ii) How does this module’s content relate to your professional career? Personal life? (iii) How does this module’s content relate to current events? (iv) Did you more deeply explore a topic only covered lightly in the course materials? What did you discover? (v) What concepts (learning objectives) did you struggle with? What resources helped you overcome this hurdle? Do not post homework problems.

Create an engaging 3-paragraph initial post that ties one or more of the module’s concepts to the real world. The paragraphs should address the following points:

Paragraph 1: Describe the physics concepts/topics you have chosen to discuss from this week’s module, including, as appropriate, a reference to this week’s readings on the topics, terminology with definitions, units, conventions, etc.

Paragraph 2: Summarize one or more impacts of the physics concepts to everyday life or aviation.

Paragraph 3: Either: (i) provide a real example, e.g., from an article or documented report of the aviation impact of this physics concept, or, (ii) give “your take” on the relevance and importance of this topic from your own perspective, by providing personal points of view or related experiences.

Length. Because your initial post will be scored on the degree to which you meet these standards, there is no set minimum word requirement. However, there is a set maximum word requirement – confine your initial post to 500 words. Remember we are all reading each other’s posts, and a succinctly written post is more likely to be read and responded to, thus furthering our discussion on that topic.

Graphics. Include a graphic, video, or image within your post (do not attach) that helps visualize some aspect of your initial post discussion.

To include a YouTube video, simply paste the video URL into your post, or embed the video using the Embed app on the toolbar.

To embed images from the web directly into the discussion post, review the Canvas resource, How do I embed an image in a discussion reply as a student? (Canvas Community).Links to an external site.

If you have trouble embedding the image into your post, you can simply insert the image URL directly into your post.

Timing. Post your initial post by the fourth day of the module week. You will not be able to see any posts until you post your initial post.

Post substantive responses to at least two of your classmates’ posts by midnight Eastern Time on the seventh day of the module week. At least one of the responses must be to a topic you did not choose for your initial post. Each response should add thoughtfully and substantively to the discussion, by covering two or more of the following areas: (i) elaborating with additional factual details; (ii) providing an alternate perspective; (iii) sharing a related experience; or, (iv) asking a related question.

Physics Experiment Report Format

Name: Do not expect credit if not included.

Title: The experiment name. Do not include the Module number. Again, do not expect credit if not included.

Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a statement the experiment is designed to test or disprove. Note: experiments are designed to test or disprove, not prove, hypotheses as there are always additional tests that could be performed. Hypotheses should make specific, testable predictions and are often in IF-THEN form, e.g., “if x is changed, then y will occur.” A hypothesis answers the question, “What is the point of the experiment”?

NOT a hypothesis: “to prove Newton’s 2nd law” or “to see what happens if I…”

IS a hypothesis: “if an object moves with constant velocity, then its distance will increase linearly with time.

Overview

The Overview is a paragraph describing the approach or strategy used to test the hypothesis. It should include what was tested and how it was tested.

Procedures

See Experiment Instructions (use this phrase; do not include the actual procedures from the experiment).

Results

State the most important numerical, graphical or qualitative results obtained from performing the experiment. If there is a data table, include it here.

Uncertainty & Error

Discuss sources of uncertainty (due to limited measurement precision, e.g., length measured to the nearest millimeter) and error. Sources of error include modeling errors (differences between the physical system your predictions are based on, and the real system) and experimental errors, both systematic (errors that always shift results in one direction) and random (equally likely to cause overestimates and underestimates). For computer simulations, discuss real-world sources of uncertainty or error that were not simulated.

Conclusion/Summary

Discuss how the experimental results support rejecting or accepting (again, not proving) the hypothesis. Discuss the relevance of uncertainties/errors to these conclusions. Propose experiment improvements and/or future directions for experimentation.

Application

Discuss at least one real-world application of the physics concept(s) tested in the experiment.

Experiment Report Example (DOCX)Download Experiment Report Example (DOCX)

The single most important requirement for an experiment report is clarity. It should be written in such a way that someone who has been unable to conduct the experiment would be able to clearly understand what was done, the results, and why it mattered.

All experiment reports should be:

concise, clear, and contain the necessary details for a well-developed explanation.

well organized so the reader is able to quickly find the information needed or of interest.

relevant and rational so the reader is able to validate the summary or conclusion.

address all rubric assessment areas (see grading rubric).

Deadline February 1st at 10:00 pm

Assignment: Reflect on Image Manipulation

This week, you learned about image manipulation. To deepen your understanding of this subject, you will now reflect on the ways you or your colleagues have manipulated images at your clinical site (Radiology – Xray)

1)List at least 5 common image manipulation techniques used at your clinical site.

2)For each technique, explain the purpose behind the manipulation.

3)Reflect on what you have learned from each manipulation that can help you in future image acquisitions with similar body parts and patient sizes.

Instructions:

Write a comprehensive and clear explanation for each manipulation technique. Consider including real-life examples to illustrate your points.

Submission format:

Write a clear and concise essay, there is no word limit. Ensure your answer covers all aspects of the assignment. Use proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Assignment 1: I will provide the book Book review Instruction Read the book 365 pages then write a book review. Instructions Identify the a) title of the book, b) the author(s), c) the edition, and d) the year it was published. (0.5 pt) 2. Briefly summarize (50-100 words) the author’s principal argument. Do not simply describe the topic(s), but articulate specifically what the author was arguing for or against. (1 pt) 3. Why do you agree/disagree with the author’s argument? (50-100 words) (1 pt) 4. How has reading this book affected your understanding of the clean energy transition differently than CSUS 259 course lectures and assignments? Be specific! (50-100 words) 5. If you had to design a module for this course based on this book, what would your module focus on? (50-100 words) (1 pt) No more than 600 words minimum of 400.

Instructions Identify the a) title of the book, b) the author(s), c) the edition, and d) the year it was published. (0.5 pt) 2. Briefly summarize (50-100 words) the author’s principal argument. Do not simply describe the topic(s), but articulate specifically what the author was arguing for or against. (1 pt) 3. Why do you agree/disagree with the author’s argument? (50-100 words) (1 pt) 4. How has reading this book affected your understanding of the clean energy transition differently than CSUS 259 course lectures and assignments? Be specific! (50-100 words) 5. If you had to design a module for this course based on this book, what would your module focus on? (50-100 words) (1 pt) No more than 600 words minimum of 400.

Problem 1: Lost in space While traveling from the Sun (mass m⊙) to the Earth, the hedgehog Betty, with mass mB was struck by an asteroid. At the time of impact, Betty was a distance r0 from the sun and an angle ϕ0 = 0 in the solar plane. The impact left Betty with velocity purely in the ϕˆ direction, ⃗v = ϕ˙ϕˆ, and Betty enters a stable, elliptical orbit around the sun. Part A) Assuming r0 is the perihelion of the orbit, calculate the angular momentum L and total energy E in terms of the known quantities, and write out the equation of Betty’s orbit r(ϕ). What are the minimum and maximum distances that Betty will come from the sun? What is the eccentricity of Betty’s orbit? Part B) What is the period of Betty’s orbit? Part C) Calculate the average kinetic energy of Betty’s orbit T = 1 µr˙2 + 1 µr2ϕ˙2 by writing both terms as a function 2 2 of ϕ (hint: you will need the chain rule for the r˙2 term). The average kinetic energy is 1 ∫ 2π T (ϕ)dϕ Part D) Calculate the average potential energy of Betty’s orbit. Part E) Write the average kinetic energy purely as a function of the average potential energy — no other terms (including, for example, c or ϵ) should appear in the equation. Problem 2: Asymptotic freedom of quarks in the strong nuclear force The strong nuclear force binds together quarks to form baryons (groups of three quarks, like protons and neutrons) and meson (quark-antiquark pairs). A full treatment of the strong nuclear force is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and requires the use of a relativistic and quantum mechanical framework of our Lagrangian mechanics. Such a treatment goes beyond the scope of this class. In this problem, we will consider a dramatically simplified version of one phenomenon that arises in QCD: asymptotic freedom. The strength of the strong nuclear force grows with the distance between two quarks, so when they are close together, they nearly act as if they are free. In this regime, pairs of quarks behave as if they are attached by a spring with spring constant k. Consider a meson, which has two quarks connected by a spring-like force. Part A) Write the (classical and non-relativistic) Lagrangian describing the motion of both quarks and their spring- like potential, which obeys Hooke’s law. You may ignore any angular momentum that the meson may have and consider the motion of the quarks in 1 dimension. Since there are two bodies, two coordinates are needed to describe the system. The two quarks in the meson I have masses m1 and m2. Part B) Calculate the time-aveaged kinetic and potential energies, and write the average kinetic energy as a function of the average potential energy. (Hint: It might help to think about center of mass coordinates) Problem 3: Going virial The above two problems found a relationship between the average kinetic and potential energies for two different central forces. Perhaps surprisingly, both came out to very simple relations. It turns out there’s an underlying structure to this relationship, described by the virial theorem. The virial theorem tells us that for any central potential that can be written as U (r) = Arn, where r is the distance between two bodies, the average kinetic and potential energies obey 2⟨T⟩ = n⟨Utot⟩, where Utot is the potential averaged over all bodies in the system. This theorem is broadly applicable across physics, particularly where we aim to examine many-body systems, spanning thermodynamics to astrophysics. In fact, examining the motion of stars using the virial theorem led to the first evidence of dark matter, both by Fritz Zwicky and Vera Ruben, separately, and it allows us to infer properties of dark matter local to the earth, even without having directly measured dark matter in a laboratory. Your goal now is to derive this theorem Part A) For a system with N particles that have position vectors ⃗ri and momenta p⃗i, define the “virial” G = i p⃗i ⃗ri. Write the derivative of the virial with respect to time in terms of the total kinetic energy T , the force acting on particle i, F⃗i, and the position of particle i, ⃗ri. Part B) Show that if a function H is bounded (i.e. there exists some finite Hmax such that for all t, H(t) Hmax), then the time-average of dH/dt taken over some sufficiently long period τ (e.g. if τ ) goes to 0. Apply this relation to Part A to write out the time average of the time derivative of the virial. Part C) For a closed system with central forces, where all forces are due to interactions between pairs of particles in the system, the force acting on a single particle can be written as the sum of the forces exerted by all particles. In other words, we can write F⃗i = N F⃗ij where F⃗ij is the force exerted on particle i by particle j and N is the number of particles in the system. F⃗ij can be written as an N × N matrix. Since particles do not exert force on themselves, the diagonal terms F⃗ii = 0. Additionally, from Newton’s third law, F⃗ij = F⃗ji. With this knowledge, we can reduce the sum over all forces into sums over triangular subsets of the force matrix. Using this knowledge, rewrite the equation derived in Part B so that it depends on the relative positions between particles ⃗rij = ⃗ri − ⃗rj rather than their absolute positions ⃗ri.

There are hundreds of moons in our solar system, and they come in many shapes, sizes, and types. Does Kepler’s law of planetary motion apply to moons? Explain.

Why were Kepler’s Laws so important? What paradigm shift took place due to his laws?

If the same force acts on the Moon from the Earth -and- on the Earth from the Moon, why does the Moon orbit the Earth and not vice versa?

How is weight different from mass. If you really just want to weigh less (assuming infinite budget and resources!), what should you do?

Newton’s addition to Kepler’s third law made it possible to know the mass of a star by looking at how planets orbit around it. How would you expect planets move if they orbited a very massive star compared to a very non-massive star (assume the same orbital distance)?

What are the major differences and similarities between Aristotle’s view of the cosmos and Copernicus’s view of the cosmos? Why was Tycho Brahe’s observations and data so important. To what end did they lead? Explain each of Kepler’s three laws as if you were explaining them to elementary aged children. In other words, do not use any mathematical symbols and try to avoid mathematical wording in your explanations of each law. Describe what an observer sees in the sky when a planet undergoes retrograde motion (in terms of direction of motion, time frame, etc.). Then explain the underlying reason is for retrograde motion (in terms of relative planetary orbits). This module largely presented a typical Western European view of the development and history of astronomy. Give at least two examples of non-Western Europeans who contributed to the development of astronomy throughout history. Cite your sources.

How could you use the night sky to find north at night? Is this “north” the same as geographic north? Why/why not?

What is the difference between a constellation and an asterism? Give two examples of each

Our modern time-keeping system is based on the Sun. Come up with a way we can keep time using the Moon, instead. How would we determine a “day”? Would how we divide into parts (like hours)? What would a “year” look like?

What is the significance of the ecliptic? Why are the sun, the moon, and the planets only found near the ecliptic?

From which culture(s) did the names of the stars originate? The constellations? There may be more than one answer to each of these questions.