Categories
Statistics

What are the Assumptions of Multiple Regression?

ESTIMATING MODELS USING DUMMY VARIABLES
Create a research question using the General Social Survey dataset that can be answered by multiple regression.
(1) Using the SPSS software, choose a categorical variable to dummy code as one of your predictor variables.
Estimate a multiple regression model that answers your research question.
Reply to the following:
(A) What is your research question?
(B) Interpret the coefficients for the model, specifically commenting on the dummy variable.
(C) Run diagnostics for the regression model.
(C1)Does the model meet all of the assumptions?
(C2) Be sure and comment on what assumptions were not met and the possible implications.
(C3) Is there any possible remedy for one of the assumption violations?
Be sure to support your Main Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.
Required Readings
Wagner, III, W. E. (2020). Using IBM® SPSS® statistics for research methods and social science statistics (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Chapter 2, “Transforming Variables”
Chapter 11, “Editing Output” (previously read in Week 2, 3, 4, 5. 6, 7, 8, and 9)

Allison, P. D. (1999). Multiple regression: A primer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press/Sage Publications.
Multiple Regression: A Primer, by Allison, P. D. Copyright 1998 by Sage College. Reprinted by permission of Sage College via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Chapter 6, “What are the Assumptions of Multiple Regression?” (pp. 119–136)Download Chapter 6, “What are the Assumptions of Multiple Regression?” (pp. 119–136)

Allison, P. D. (1999). Multiple regression: A primer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press/Sage Publications.
Multiple Regression: A Primer, by Allison, P. D. Copyright 1998 by Sage College. Reprinted by permission of Sage College via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Chapter 7, “What can be done about Multicollinearity?” (pp. 137–152)Download Chapter 7, “What can be done about Multicollinearity?” (pp. 137–152)

Warner, R. M. (2012). Applied statistics from bivariate through multivariate techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Applied Statistics From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques, 2nd Edition by Warner, R.M. Copyright 2012 by Sage College. Reprinted by permission of Sage College via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Chapter 12, “Dummy Predictor Variables in Multiple Regression”Download Chapter 12, “Dummy Predictor Variables in Multiple Regression”

Fox, J. (Ed.). (1991). Regression diagnostics. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Chapter 3, “Outlying and Influential Data” (pp. 22–41)
Chapter 4, “Non-Normally Distributed Errors” (pp. 41–49)
Chapter 5, “Nonconstant Error Variance” (pp. 49–54)
Chapter 6, “Nonlinearity” (pp. 54–62)
Chapter 7, “Discrete Data” (pp. 62–67)
Note: You will access these chapters through the Walden Library databases. The chapters are individually linked below.

Outlying and Influential Data. (1991). In J. Fox (Ed.), Regression Diagnostics. (pp. 22-41). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Non-Normally Distributed Errors. (1991). In J. Fox (Ed.), Regression Diagnostics. (pp. 41-49). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Nonconstant Error Variance. (1991). In J. Fox (Ed.), Regression Diagnostics. (pp. 49-54). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

(Links to an external site.)Discrete Data. (1991). In J. Fox (Ed.), Regression Diagnostics. (pp. 62-67). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc (Links to an external site.)

Nonlinearity. (1991). In J. Fox (Ed.), Regression Diagnostics. (pp. 54-62). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
(Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)

Outlying and Influential Data. (1991). In J. Fox (Ed.), Regression Diagnostics. (pp. 22-41). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Categories
Statistics

What other data might you analyze to advocate for an adult daycare in the community, if your finding is not statistically significant?

Assignment Scenario
Your community wants to open an adult daycare center. You have located the Farrel Foundation, which would like to fund start-up grants for daycare programs. This foundation’s research demonstrates a correlation between depression and length of time in a skilled nursing facility. A group of community residents feel that an adult daycare would allow the aging population to stay with their families while using the supplemental daycare services. You are asked to confirm the correlation between depression and length of stay in nursing homes in an effort to provide community options. Nursing home residents were asked to complete the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), which is a 15-item scale (a 15 represents a high level of depression).
Using the data in the Unit 4 Dataset, given in the resources, test whether length of stay in a nursing home and depression are related at a .05 level of significance.
Also refer to the tutorial provided in this unit’s first study as a reference on how to conduct correlation tests.
Assignment Instructions
For this assignment, respond to the following prompts in a one-page, APA-formatted paper.
Based on the output, state the following factors:
Sample size.
Correlation coefficient.
Significance.
Based on the value of the correlation coefficient, explain whether there is a significant relationship between length of stay and depression.
Based on the correlation coefficient and given the value of r, provide a narrative conclusion:
How might you explain the result of this correlation test?
What other data might you analyze to advocate for an adult daycare in the community, if your finding is not statistically significant?

Categories
Statistics

What is a situation from your own life where you could use a confidence interval? how would you do it?

What is a situation from your own life where you could use a confidence interval? how would you do it?

Categories
Statistics

Define your major variables in a clear and concise manner, and distinguish between independent and dependent variables.

Assignment Descriiption
In this assignment, you will describe how to evaluate the program you identified in Unit 3. You will also determine the methodology for this program evaluation and indicate other details such as associated research questions, definitions of variables, sampling and data collection procedures, applicable instruments, and discussion of ethical issues pertaining to human subjects.
Assignment Instructions
Using the program you identified in the Unit 3 assignment, Research Literature Review, design a program evaluation plan. Use the following outline:
Introduction: State the topics that will be covered in this section.
Organization descriiption: Describe the program or service (program focus, resources, population, clients served, and the theory of change). Include a descriiption of the stakeholders and evaluation purpose.
Research questions and hypotheses: Revisit research questions and hypotheses established in the Unit 3 assignment, Research Literature Review.
Definition of variables and terms in the study: Define your major variables in a clear and concise manner, and distinguish between independent and dependent variables. Every variable that is identified in the research questions should be defined clearly in this section in terms of what it is and how it will be measured.
Descriiption of the methodology (study design).
Explain whether your study is qualitative, quantitative, or both and whether it is cross-sectional (single point in time) or longitudinal (more than one measure from the same people).
Explain how you are going to determine the efficacy of your program (for example, pre-tests and post-tests, comparison to a similar group of people not receiving program services).
Explain if you are comparing the group getting the intervention to any other group on the outcomes of interest (a control or comparison group).
Explain if you are using more than one source of data to triangulate measures of your outcome of interest (for example, rates of participation, qualitative interviews, and a satisfaction survey).
Explain why this method of program evaluation and methodology is best practice (as compared to other possible models).
Sampling procedures.
Distinguish between the population and your sample.
Provide some basic demographic information that you would anticipate.
State how many people are taking part in the study and how you will go about sampling them.
Explain how the control/comparison group will be selected or how people are assigned to that group, if you are using a control/comparison group.
Instrumentation: Do you plan to use a standardized instrument or will you design your own? Why? Every variable that is addressed in your research questions and operational definitions should also be addressed in this section. Describe the validity and reliability of your instruments. Note that you must include at least one quantitative measure. Include your instruments, including any qualitative interview protocols, in an appendix.
Data collection and procedures: Describe exactly what you plan to do and when. Explain how and when you will collect each measure, and how and when you will begin the intervention and for how long
Human protection: Discuss ethical issues pertaining to the method of program evaluation you selected. Discuss how you will address and minimize these issues. Include a sample informed consent (and minor assent, if necessary) as an appendix.

Categories
Statistics

Discuss how statistics can be misused within the field of Education.

Discussion Q2
In your own words, explain the following:
The importance of statistical analysis within the field of Education.
How statistics can be used to interpret data and why this is important for the field of Education
How statistics can be misused within the field of Education.
Please refer to the following prior to starting the assignment. Thiese, M. S., Arnold, Z. C., & Walker, S. D. (2015). The misuse and abuse of statistics in biomedical research. Biochemia Medica, 25(1), 5–11. http://doi.org/10.11613/BM.2015.001
Provide at least a 250-word post (with at least two APA style references) and comment on at least two of your peers’ post
———————————————–
http://doi.org/10.11613/BM.2015.001
(if your not able to use the link above, this is the link your needing to read for the information)

Categories
Statistics

Discuss which measure of central tendency you think most accurately describes the variable that you measured.

For the second SLP, using the data that you collected for the Module 1 SLP, please do the following:
data from SLP the number of minutes exercise for 5 days
day 1, 45 minutes
day 2, 65 minutes
day 3. 45 minutes
day 4 60 minutes
day 5 50 minutes
Calculate the mean, median, mode, variance, and standard deviation of the measurements taken in Module 1 SLP. Show your work and be sure to express each value in units.
Discuss which measure of central tendency you think most accurately describes the variable that you measured. Provide a thorough explanation.
Describe the spread/distribution of your data. Be sure to describe the variance of distribution and the concept of standard deviation as a measure of dispersion in your response.
Conduct a scholarly search on the internet to find reported health statistics on the variable that you are measuring. For example, if you measure your total daily caloric intake, American Dietetic Association.
Identify the source.
Submit your (2-3 pages) paper by the end of this module.

Categories
Statistics

How many minutes do you spend exercising each day?

How many minutes do you spend exercising each day?
-minutes is the unit of measurement,
-gather by the wristband health monitor
day 1, 45 minutes
day 2, 65 minutes
day 3. 45 minutes
day 4 60 minutes
day 5 50 minutes

Categories
Statistics

Analyze the data to provide the hypothesis testing conclusion.

Watch the Week 2 Introduction Links to an external site.video https://ashford.mediaspace.kaltura.com/media/BUS308+%7C+Week+2+Introduction/1_ej73czo3
and read Chapters 9 and 10
Anderson, D. R., Sweeney, D. J., Williams, T. A., Camm, J. D., Cochran, J. J., Fry, M. J., & Ohlmann. J. W. (2021). Essentials of modern business statistics with Microsoft® Excel® (8th ed.). Cengage Learning
Step 1: Read:
• Review Case Problem: PAR Inc. Download Case Problem: PAR Inc.
Step 2: Do:
• Run the t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances for the Data File Golf (Chapter 10) using the video How to Add Excel’s Data Analysis ToolPak Links to an external site. https://ashford.mediaspace.kaltura.com/media/How+to+add+Excel%27s+Data+Analysis+ToolPak/0_qm214kiv
In a managerial report, use the methods of hypothesis testing to
• Formulate and present the rationale for a hypothesis test that Par could use to compare the driving distances of the current and new golf balls.
• Analyze the data to provide the hypothesis testing conclusion. What is the p-value for your test? What is your recommendation for Par, Inc.?
• Provide descriiptive statistical summaries of the data for each model.
• Explain what the 95% confidence interval is for the population mean driving distance of each model, and explain what the 95% confidence interval is for the difference between the means of the two populations.
• Discuss whether you see a need for larger sample sizes and more testing with the golf balls.
Step 3: Discuss
Based on your hypothesis testing conclusion, what are your recommendations for Par, Inc? Support your recommendations with findings from your managerial report.

Categories
Statistics

Instructions Your final project should include Part A and all of the following:

Instructions
Your final project should include Part A and all of the following:
Sampling: A careful desсrіption of how the samples were obtained. Be very specific. Include sample sizes, the population of interest, and a desсrіption of the sample. Also, include a copy of the survey if you used one.
Data: The actual data and a summary of the counts.
Desсrіptive Statistics: Any desсrіptive statistics relevant to your project should be included.
You are required to give the mean, mode, median, and standard deviation of your data (2 sets if you are doing 2 means).
At least two graphs (such as box plots, scatter plots, stem-and-leaf, histograms, etc.) should be part of your project. The graphs can be a way to summarize desсrіptive statistics.
Hypotheses testing: Show your hypothesis test and discuss any conclusions they suggest
State the hypotheses you will test and formally write them in proper notation
Give the results (reject, fail to reject) and explain what that means in a practical way.
Conclusion:
Discuss the weaknesses of your study.
To what population do you feel comfortable extrapolating your results? Why?
Give suggestions for further work in the area of your topic. Be sure to reference the situation as you discuss your conclusion. (this is a great time to seek out similar published research on your topic, is yours in line with those results? If not why do you think that is?
Explain what leads you to the conclusion(s) that you have drawn.
What would you change if you started this project again? What considerations would you include? Include any areas of caution that a reader or user of your work should be aware of as they make decisions. Was the sample random, was the sample large enough, etc?
References in APA format.
This project provides you with an opportunity to pull together much of the statistics of this course and apply it to a topic of interest to you. You must gather your own data by observational study, controlled experiment, or survey. Data will need to be such that analysis can be done using the tools of this course. You will take the first steps towards applying Statistics to real-life situations. Consider subjects you are interested in or topics that you are curious about.
You are going to want to select a data set related to sports, real-estate, and/or crime statistics. Consider subjects you are interested in or topics that you are curious about. If you would like to choose your own topic, such as the field-specific examples below, please be sure to approve your topic with your instructor PRIOR to collecting data.
Field-specific examples:
Healthcare: Stress test score and blood pressure reading, cigarettes smoked per day, and lung cancer mortality
Criminal Justice: Incidents at a traffic intersection each year
Business: Mean school spending and socio-economic level
Electronics Engineering Technology: Machine setting and energy consumption
Computer Information Systems: Time of day and internet speeds

Categories
Statistics

Discuss why the data set exemplifies a study that agrees with the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

Submit the Milestone One Worksheet Word Document. In this milestone, you will address the following:
Indicate what data set you have chosen and why. If you chose a particular data set to align with your concentration in psychology, describe in a sentence or two why you have chosen this concentration.
Describe the involved parties in the data set presented and the question you can answer by the data.
Discuss why the data set exemplifies a study that agrees with the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.
Discuss ethical issues that may arise when analyzing and reporting statistical data.
Describe one way in which you will ensure your reporting of results in your data analysis will align with the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.